【英语写作summary】10篇英语summary范文

来源:心得体会 发布时间:2019-08-15 15:09:16 点击:

英语写作summary

英语写作summary 英语写作summary:Children Must be Taught to Tell Right from Wrong Article Children Must be Taught to Tell Right from Wrong William Kilpatrick Many of today’s young people have a difficult time seeing any moral dimension (道德层面) to their actions. There are a number of reasons why that’s true, but none more prominent than a failed system of education that eschews (回避) teaching children the traditional moral values that bind Americans together as a society and a culture. That failed approach, called “decision-making,” was introduced in schools 25 years ago. It tells children to decide for themselves what is right and what is wrong. It replaced “character education. (品格教育)” Character education didn’t ask children to reinvent the moral wheel (浪费时间重新发明早已存在的道德 标准);
instead, it encouraged them to practice habits of courage, justice and self-control. In the 1940s, when a character education approach prevailed, teachers worried about students chewing gum;
today they worry about robbery and rape. Decision-making curriculums pose thorny (棘手的) ethical dilemmas to students, leaving them with the impression that all morality is problematic and that all questions of right and wrong are in dispute. Youngsters are forced to question values and virtues they’ve never acquired in the first place or upon which they have only a tenuous (薄弱的) hold. The assumption behind this method is that students will arrive at good moral conclusions if only they are given the chance. But the actual result is moral confusion. For example, a recent national study of 1,700 sixth- to ninth-graders revealed that a majority of boys considered rape to be acceptable under certain conditions. Astoundingly, many of the girls agreed. This kind of moral illiteracy is further encouraged by values-education (价值观教育) programs that are little more than courses in self-esteem (自尊). These programs are based on the questionable assumption that a child who feels good about himself or herself won’t want to do anything wrong. But it is just as reasonable to make an opposite assumption: namely, that a child who has uncritical self-regard will conclude that he or she can’t do anything bad. Such naive self-acceptance results in large part from the non-directive (无指导性的), non-judgmental (无是非观的), as-long-as-you-feel-comfortable-with-your-choices mentality (思想) that has pervaded (渗透) public education for the last two and one-half decades. Many of today’s drug education, sex education and values-education courses are based on the same 1960s philosophy that helped fuel the explosion in teen drug use and sexual activity in the first place. Meanwhile, while educators are still fiddling with (胡乱摆弄) outdated “feel-good” approaches, New York, Washington, and Los Angeles are burning. Youngsters are leaving school believing that matters of right and wrong are always merely subjective. If you pass a stranger on the street and decide to murder him because you need money—if it feels right—you go with that feeling. Clearly, murder is not taught in our schools, but such a conclusion—just about any conclusion—can be reached and justified using the decision-making method. It is time to consign (寄出) the fads (风尚) of “decision-making” and “non-judgmentalism” to the ash heap of failed policies, and return to a proved method. Character education provides a much more realistic approach to moral formation. It is built on an understanding that we learn morality not by debating it but by practicing it. Sample Summary of “Children Must be Taught to Tell Right from Wrong” In his essay “,” fervently that the approach to the moral education of American youth, which replaced “character education” 25 years ago, has prevented juveniles from behaving and thinking in accordance with the traditional moral principles that are fundamental to American society. subjective constructs with only relative truth in them and therefore can be interpreted flexibly and even about what should be clearly right or wrong. are the unexpected outcomes of that subscribe to the “non-judgmental” mindset dominating . that feeling good warrants morality excuses students from criticizing and disciplining their own behaviors. emphasizing practice instead of discussion. 英语summary的写作技巧 摘要是对一篇文章的主题思想的简单陈述。它用最简洁的语言概括了 原文的主题。写摘要主要包括三个步骤:(1)阅读;(2)写作;(3)修改成文。

第一步:
阅读 A.认真阅读给定的原文材料。如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍。阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻。

B.给摘要起一个标题。用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短 句子作为标题。也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题。主题句往往出现在文章的开 头或结尾。一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想。

C.现在,就该决定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了。对重要 部分的主要观点进行概括。

D.简要地记下主要观点——主题、标题、细节等你认为对概括摘要重 要的东西。

第二步:动手写作 A. 摘要应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长。因此首先数一下原 文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字。摘要的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千 万不能超过这个数字。

B. 摘要应全部用自己的话完成。不要引用原文的句子。

C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序。这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实。

D. 摘要必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需 翻阅原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意。

E. 写摘要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:
1) 删除细节。只保留主要观点。

2) 选择一至两个例子。原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从 中筛选一至二个例子。

3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某 事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可。

4) 避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。

但是这在摘要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

5) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:
“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.”可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.” “He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 可以 概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.” 6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:
“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.” 可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.” 7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:
“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.” 可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.” 8) 使用最短的连接词。比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不 能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长 的连接词。通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果。

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在摘要中转换成第三人称,从而把 大段的对白简化,比如:
Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful like eating cardboard or sand just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”可以用第三人称概括为:
Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless. 第三步:修改成文 草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改。首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要 的观点都概括了,摘要中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致。其次,如果摘要中出 现了不必要的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们。第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符 号的错误。最后,保持语言简单明了。

经过上述步骤和方法,一篇摘要就可以完成了。

附:
摘要写作(summary writing)是一种控制性的作文形式,它能使学生通 过阅读原文,吸收原文的文章结构与语言方面的长处,写出内容一致、结构近似、 语言简洁的短文。另外,对培养学生善于抓住文章重点的能力也有很大帮助,有 利于他们在实际写作中避免面面俱到,事无巨细,一一罗列的不良倾向。这种写 作既要准确理解原文,又要能综合概括;既能培养欣赏能力,又能训练书面表达 能力。因此,用英文写摘要,对学习英语写作的学生来说,不失为一种切合实际 的方法。下面谈谈怎么写好英文摘要。

1)细读原文。首先要仔细阅读全篇作品,然后对作品进行整体分析, 掌握原文总的意思和结构,明确全文的主题(the maintheme)和各段的段落大意 (the main idea)。

2)弄清要求。搞清楚是写全文概要,还是写某一部分的概要,或者就 某些问题写出要点。

3)列出原文要点。分析原文的内容和结构,将内容分项扼要表述并注 意在结构上的顺序。在此基础上选出与文章主题密切相关的部分。

4)草拟写作提纲并写出初稿。将挑选出的要点作为框架草拟详细的提 纲,以所列的提纲为依据写出摘要的初稿。在写作时要特别注意下面几点:
(1)摘要应包括原文中的主要事实(main facts);略去不必要的细节(unnecessary details)。

(2)安排好篇幅的比例。摘要应同原文保持协调,即用较多的文字写 重要内容,用较少的文字写次要内容。

(3)注意段落的连贯和句子的衔接。要用适当的转折词语贯通全文, 切忌只简单地写出一些互不相干的句子。

(4)尽可能用自己的话来写,但不排斥用原文的某些词句。

(5)计算词数,看是否符合规定的词数要求。

英语的summary怎么写 怎么写SUMMARY摘要(summary)是一种对原始文献(或文章)的基本 内容进行浓缩的语义连贯的短文.它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不加主观评 论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容.摘要写作(summary writing) 是一种控制性的作文形式,它能使学生通过阅读原文,吸收原文的文章结构与语言 方面的长处,写出内容一致、结构近似、语言简洁的短文.另外,对培养学生善于抓 住文章重点的能力也有很大帮助,有利于他们在实际写作中避免面面俱到,事无巨 细,一一罗列的不良倾向.这种写作既要准确理解原文,又要能综合概括;既能培养 欣赏能力,又能训练书面表达能力.因此,用英文写摘要,对学习英语写作的学生来 说,不失为一种切合实际的方法. 下面谈谈怎么写好英文摘要. 1)细读原文.首先要仔细阅读全篇作品,然后对作品进行整体分析,掌握 原文总的意思和结构,明确全文的主题(the maintheme)和各段的段落大意(the main idea). 2)弄清要求.搞清楚是写全文概要,还是写某一部分的概要,或者就某些 问题写出要点.3)列出原文要点.分析原文的内容和结构,将内容分项扼要表述并注 意在结构上的顺序.在此基础上选出与文章主题密切相关的部分. 4)草拟写作提纲并写出初稿.将挑选出的要点作为框架草拟详细的提 纲,以所列的提纲为依据写出摘要的初稿.在写作时要特别注意下面几点:
(1)摘要应包括原文中的主要事实(main facts);略去不必要的细节(unnecessary details).(2)安排好篇幅的比例.摘要应同原文保持协调,即用较多的文 字写重要内容,用较少的文字写次要内容.(3)注意段落的连贯和句子的衔接.要用 适当的转折词语贯通全文,切忌只简单地写出一些互不相干的句子. (4)尽可能用自己的话来写,但不排斥用原文的某些词句. (5)计算词数,看是否符合规定的词数要求. 如何写一篇文章的摘要– 下文是对《英语写作手册》相关章节的翻译 摘要是对一篇文章的主题思想的简单陈述.它用最简洁的语言概括了 原文的主题.写摘要主要包括三个步骤:(1)阅读;(2)写作;(3)修改成文. 第一步:阅读 A.认真阅读给定的原文材料.如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍.阅读次 数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻. B.给摘要起一个标题.用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短 句子作为标题.也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题.主题句往往出现在文章的开头 或结尾.一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想. C.现在,就该决定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了.对重要部 分的主要观点进行概括. D.简要地记下主要观点——主题、标题、细节等你认为对概括摘要重 要的东西. 第二步:动手写作 A. 摘要应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长.因此首先数一下原 文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字.摘要的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千万不 能超过这个数字. B. 摘要应全部用自己的话完成.不要引用原文的句子. C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序.这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实. D. 摘要必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需翻阅原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意. E. 写摘要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:
1) 删除细节.只保留主要观点. 2) 选择一至两个例子.原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中 筛选一至二个例子. 3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子.如果材料中描述某人或某事 用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可. 4) 避免重复.在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明.但是 这在摘要中是不能使用的.应该删除那些突出强调的重述句. 5) 压缩长的句子.如下列两例:
“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.” 可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.” “He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.” 6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句.请看下面的例子:
“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.” 可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.” 7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:
“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.” 8) 使用最短的连接词.比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能 使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的 连接词.通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果. 9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在摘要中转换成第三人称,从而把大 段的对白简化,比如:
Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful… like eating cardboard or sand… just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.” 可以用第三人称概括为:
Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless. 第三步:修改成文 草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改.首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要的 观点都概括了,摘要中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致.其次,如果摘要中出现了 不必要的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们.第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符号的错误. 最后,保持语言简单明了. 经过上述步骤和方法,一篇摘要就可以完成了.推荐访问:英语写作 summary 英语写作summary 英语summary万能模板 summary写作模板

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